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2022暑期学校·徐州教育哲学国际论坛简报|No.5

时间:2022-07-15浏览:10设置

专家讲座四:康理副研究员 海德格尔论教育

Expert lecture IV: Karl Kraatz| Heidegger on Education

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7月13日上午,2022教育哲学暑期学校·徐州教育哲学国际论坛暨教师专业发展周活动以线上的形式继续进行,授课教师为湖南大学康理副研究员。

On the morning of July 13, the 2022 Summer School of Philosophy of Education · Xuzhou International Forum on Philosophy of Education & Teacher Professional Development Week continued online. The lecturer was Karl Kraatz,  associate researcher from Hunan University.

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主讲人简介

Karl Kraatz Introduction

康理副研究员曾在柏林弗雷大学和马尔堡菲利普斯大学学习汉学和哲学,后来在托马斯伦奇和克里斯托夫·德默林的指导下从德累斯顿大学获得博士学位。自2021年起,他在湖南大学担任副研究员。著有《海德格尔的哲学方法论》、《海德格尔的哲学语言》、《存在与时间新论:海德格尔的自我批判》、《20世纪中国哲学家对中国落后论的哲学阐述》、《自我责任是本体论伦理的核心》等论著。

Karl Kraatz studied Sinology and Philosophy at Freie Universität in Berlin and Philipps-Universität in Marburg before getting his PhD from Technische Universität-Dresden under the supervision of Thomas Rentsch and Christoph Demmerling. Since 2021, he works as an associate researcher at Hunan-University. His publications include a book (Die Methodologie von Martin Heideggers Philosophie) and several articles on topics related to Martin Heidegger and Phenomenology.

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(主持人:韦永琼副教授)

讲座开始之前,韦老师对康理副研究员进行了介绍。康老师主要研究方向是海德格尔的哲学及汉学,目前在湖南师范大学作副研究员、博士后。韦老师鼓励参会同学们积极交流、讨论、提问,共同探讨海德格尔的教育思想。

Before the lecture,  Ms. Wei introduced Karl Kraatz main research area is Heidegger's philosophy and Sinology. After that, Ms. Wei encouraged students to communicate, discuss and ask questions actively, and discuss Heidegger's educational thoughts together.


内容概要 

Content Summary

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康老师先是阐述了在海德格尔看来目前西方教育存在危机,教育不再是培养一个人的基本能力,而是促使其产生最大化的利润、人的工具价值的最大化利用。关于这场教育危机的原因,海德格尔认为是“形而上学”出了问题,海德格尔说,危机的根源在于对柏拉图最初教育概念的误解。因此,只有哲学“能拯救我们”,并教会我们什么是“真正的教育”。

Karl Kraatz first explained that there is a crisis in western education in Heidegger's view. Education is no longer about developing one's basic abilities, but promoting it to produce maximum profit and utilization characteristics. As for the cause of this education crisis, Heidegger thought it was metaphysics. Heidegger said that the root of the crisis was the misunderstanding of Plato's initial concept of education. Therefore, only philosophy can save us and teach us what real education is.

第二部分康老师讲解了关于西方教育存有的危机以及海德格尔给出的两个解决方案。一是海德格尔通过对柏拉图洞穴寓言的解读,指出了柏拉图洞喻论的出路;二是海德格尔通过对柏拉图洞喻论的解读,给出了他的新方案,即“行动中的教育”。康理的报告发现了《存在与时间》中的派地亚星系。

Then, in the second part, Karl Kraatz explained heidegger's two solutions to the crisis of Western education.(1)Heidegger's interpretation of Plato's allegory of the Cave;(2)Heidegger's Education in Action : Paideia in Being and Time.

最后,康老师对海德格尔的教育进行了总结:在海德格尔看来,解决西方教育危机的出路在于“真实的教育”。但海德格尔这种教育模式存在问题:不“跳进去”,我们怎么教育呢?为此,海德格尔提出“形式指引”是该问题的解决方案,它能引导我们抵达本质存在。

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    In the end, Dr.Kraatz summarized Heidegger's education: In Heidegger's opinion, the solution to the western education crisis lies in real education. But there is a problem with Heidegger's educational model: how can we teach without jumping in? Therefore, Heidegger proposed that formal guidance is the solution to this problem, which can lead us to the place where our essence exists.


韦老师对康老师的报告进行了总结并谈了她的心得体会。康博士从西方教育的危机谈起,事实上,它也是我们这里的教育危机。比如,职业化的强调,所谓综合大学并没有符合它的真实本义,人们每天为了琐事耗尽心智,却减损了放在学术上的精力。还有超专业化也是目前大学教育的危机之一,每门学科都需要培养专家才能在竞赛中赢得好的声誉,这就导致大学的专家教授们不再有多余的时间精力来对学生们进行博雅教育。师生都为了专精化而耗尽了头脑(所谓的发际线越来越高)。还有碎片的知识、切割知识的整体性等。

导致教育危机的原因,海德格尔认为是奠基在形而上学之上的教育出了问题。即教育的形而上学的预设出了问题。它是人们对现实最基本的陈述。也就是怎么理解教育,把教育看成是什么。形而上学,是教育的座架,但以往却被忽视了。总以为它不重要,认为它是悬在天上的东西、脚不沾地,于现实无用。然而,正是由于这种错误的形而上学观导致了教育的危机。解决的办法是回到古希腊的派地亚。海德格尔将它解释为回到真实教育。也就是“转变”,从现实转身到我们的本真状态。就教育领域而言,绝断,是坚定地对他人负责。

从康博士的讲座中,韦老师更加坚信教育哲学这个方向对整个教育事业的根基性作用是无论怎么强调都不为过的。学好教育哲学是每一个教育学专业的人必不可少的要务。

Ms. Wei summed up Dr. Kraatz's report and talked about own experience. Dr. Kraatz starts with the crisis of education in the West and, indeed, in our own country. According to Heidegger, the cause of education crisis is the problem of education based on metaphysics. The solution is to go back to Ancient Greece to Paideia. From Dr. Kraatz's lecture, it is impossible to overemphasize the fundamental role of educational philosophy in the whole educational career. Therefore, learning educational philosophy well is an indispensable task for every pedagogy major.


讨论环节

Collective Discussion

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江苏师范大学21级教育学原理专业研究生王洁同学向康老师请教了一个问题,真正的教育是对一个完整的人的转变,通过它我们成为了我们自己,但我们是由我们的老师领导的,我们怎么能表现得像我们一样?老师真的知道我们是谁吗?

Wang Jie's question: True education is the translation of a complete person, through which we become ourselves, but we are led by our teachers. How can we act like we are? Does the teacher really know who we are?

康老师对王同学的提问进行了解答。这是一个非常好的问题,关于这个问题,海德格尔提出了一个解决方案:形式指引。在海德格尔看来,教育是转变,教师在一个人发生转变的过程中起着不可忽视的作用。海德格尔认为,教育者或者教师的任务是使用“形式指示”这个教学方法使学生的自我学习成为可能,告诉学生自己寻找自己本真的样子。

Karl Kraatz answered Wang Jie's questions. Heidegger proposed a solution to this problem: Formal Indication.Heidegger believed that the task of educators or teachers is to use the teaching method of formal instruction to make students' self-learning possible and tell students to find their own true appearance.


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        江苏师范大学21级教育学原理专业研究生程译慧同学请教了康老师一个问题。中国有句话“师父领进门,修行在个人”。马克思主义还认为,主体的内部因素是根本因素,外部因素是辅助因素。作为大学生,我们还能指望老师来改变我们吗?

Cheng Yihui question:As a Chinese saying goes, The master open the door, and the cultivation belongs to the individual.Marxism also holds that the internal factor of the subject is the fundamental factor and the external factor is the auxiliary factor. As college students, can we expect teachers to change us?

康老师对程同学的提问进行了解答。当我们发生转变或者改变时,教师只是起到帮助作用,并且老师与学生之间的影响是相互的。另外,康老师还指出,真正能促使我们发生转变的可以说是海德格尔强调的“Paideia”教育,即真实教育。若想获得转变,就不可片面的依赖某一方,而是要依赖真实教育。

Karl Kraatz answer:When we change, teachers only play a instruction role, and the influence between teachers and students is mutual. In addition, Dr. Kraatz also pointed out that what can really push us to change can be said to be Heidegger's emphasis on Paideia education, that is, real education. If you want change, you have to rely the truth of education.

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       南京师范大学林梓媛同学向康老师请教了一个问题。面对技术理性的至上和人文主义的衰落,海德格尔提出了“诗意栖居”的视角。在许多文献中,经常看到研究者以“让教师和学生诗意地栖居在教育中”作为结论。应该如何理解这句话?

Lin Ziyuan question:Faced with the supremacy of technical rationality and the decline of humanism, Heidegger put forward the perspective of poetic dwelling. In many literatures, we often see researchers conclude that let teachers and students inhabit the education poetically. What should we make of this sentence?

康老师对林同学的问题进行了解答。这个问题是关于教育的危机和另一个解决方案,很多人指向的是诗意栖居的代价,在康老师之前的演讲中,其曾说过我们要到达我们本质存在的地方,并习惯它,这种诗意的住所,这种习惯我们存在的地方,听起来非常神秘。这是以一种开放的心态去体验这个世界,然后尝试以一种独特的原创方式去回应你所看到和经历的一切。所以,更早时期的想法是去隐藏它,将这种坚决称为自由,后来的追随者们把这叫做诗意的栖居。这种方式并不意味着写诗,它更像是一种体验世界和回应世界的整体态度。

Karl Kraatz answered Lin's questions:In his previous talk, he said that we have to get to where we are and get used to it, and this poetic habitation, this habituation of where we are, sounds very mysterious. It's about experiencing the world with an open mind and then trying to respond to everything you see and experience in a uniquely original way.

中国台湾屏东大学简成熙教授向康老师探讨了三个问题,海德格尔对柏拉图洞穴的解释是否肯定了洞穴外的现实?海德格尔的立场是追求这种理性的现实吗?海德格尔是否认为德国传统比如洪堡反映了他真实的教育理想?

Prof. Cheng-Hsi Chien’s question:Does Heidegger's interpretation of Plato's cave confirm the reality outside the cave? Is Heidegger's position the pursuit of this rational reality? Did Heidegger think that the German tradition such as Humboldt or Hegel's Bildung, reflected his true educational ideals?

康老师回应这是柏拉图所反对的另一种幻觉,是追求理性现实的可怕立场。而关于海德格尔的教育理想,一个共同的教育目标可以使国家团结起来或使人类团结起来。这是整个社会教育的自我转变,也是真实教育的最高目标。

Karl Kraatz answer:This is another illusion that Plato opposes, a terrible position in pursuit of rational reality. A common educational goal can unite a country or unite mankind. This is the self-transformation of the whole social education.

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       江苏师范大学21级教育经济与管理专业研究生唐娇蕊同学向康老师请教了一个问题,应该如何理解海德格尔的“走向死亡”(或向死而生)?

Tang Jiaorui question:How should we understand Heidegger's towards death?

康老师赞许了唐同学的问题。这句话确实应用十分广泛,但很多人将其误解为消极含义,海德格尔说的向死而生是让人们对死亡拥有更坦然的态度。这个话题对生活在世很重要,也与教师的教学、学生在校的学习息息相关,需要对“向死而生”保持正确的认识。

Karl Kraatz answer:Heidegger said that living towards to death is to make people have a more calm attitude towards death. This topic is very important to our life, and it is very relevant to our teachers' teaching and students' learning in school. We need to keep a correct view of living to death.

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江苏师范大学20级学科教学(语文)专业李晶同学也提出了她的疑惑。海德格尔说,教育者的任务是正确地指出自我改造的途径,这种途径需要教师在教学过程中创造。海德格尔建议破坏原有的意识形态和规则,但在现实生活中,教师需要学生保持原有的感情和理解。这两者之间有矛盾吗?

Li Jing’s question:Heidegger suggested destroying the original ideology and rules, but in real life, teachers need students to maintain the original feelings and understanding. Is there a contradiction between them?

康老师解答了李同学的疑惑。海德格尔曾经试图从一个更广阔的角度来描述他的一生。他也试图改变策略,以影响教育和政治以及德国大学的面貌。不得不说他改变大学治理模式的尝试是不成功的。

Karl Kraatz answer:Kraatz believes Heidegger tried to describe his life from a broader perspective. his attempt to change policy was disastrous .

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      江苏师范大学20级教育学原理专业但倩倩同学也向康老师表达了自己的困惑。在现代化进程中,西方的教育危机同样存在于中国的教育中。在这样一个科学不可逆转的时代潮流中,如何构建一个全人教育,从而才能达到最真实的状态呢?

Dan Qian Qian’s question:In such a scientific irreversible trend of The Times, how can we construct a holistic education to achieve the most real state?

康老师解答了但同学的问题。构建全人教育需要指出教育的危机,清楚危机的症状,并让人们意识到教育、大学和学校存在的诸多问题。同时,找到一种办法来解决这个问题。例如,对于中国教育,可以通过伟大的儒家传统文化来培养人类的完整性。

Karl Kraatz answer:To construct whole-person education, we need to point out the crisis of education, make clear the symptoms of the crisis, and make people aware of the many problems in education, universities and schools. In the meantime, a solution to the problem should be found.

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       来自江苏师范大学华体会电竞的国际生,印度尼西亚的阿玉(Hikmah Ayu)同学请教了康老师一个问题。正如海德格尔所说,从真正的教育的转变可以获得独创性、真实性或自由。但是,如果我们所获得的独创性、真实性和自由还没法像现在我们生活在不确定和快速变化中那样提供心灵和生活的平静的话,又该怎么办呢?

Hikmah Ayu’s question:if the originality, authenticity, and freedom that we acquire don't provide the same peace of mind and life that we now live in the midst of uncertainty and rapid change?

康老师对阿玉同学的问题给予了解答。康老师认为海德格尔是一个非常悲观和严肃的人,他不会提出这种教育转向会让一切变得更好。海德格尔甚至认为这不是教育家的任务,而是哲学家的任务。所以海德格尔并没有说转变后的生活会比现在的生活好。因此,教育的转变是否能为我们带来益处,这也需要我们自己生活和心灵上平静的不断修炼。

Karl Kraatz answer:Heidegger was a very pessimistic and serious man, and he would not suggest that this transformation of education would make everything better. Therefore, whether the transformation of education can bring us benefits, it needs our own life and peace of mind continuous cultivation.


江苏师范大学许正副教授对元宇宙这一概念发表了自己的看法,称元宇宙(Meta)只是一项业务,与教育本身没有任何关系。

Xu Zheng Associate Professor weighed in on the meta-universe concept, saying Meta is just a business that has nothing to do with education itself.


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江苏师范大学20级文艺学蒋相杰同学向康老师请教了一个问题。如何理解元宇宙与洞穴隐喻的关系,如何认识技术入侵对教育的影响?

Jiang Xiangjie’s question:How to understand the relationship between metaverse and cave metaphor, and how to understand the impact of technological invasion on education?

康老师对蒋同学的问题进行了回应。康老师认为元宇宙本身与教育之间没有关联。随着教育和元宇宙的发展,其可能会产生联系,它就像观察现代科技一样是非常有趣和迷人的。人工智能声称会改变人们对教育的理解。但人不能由技术支配,而应利用技术来发展教育。

Karl Kraatz answer:The meta-universe is just a business that has little to do with education itself. AI calls this a change in understanding of education. We should not let technology dominate people, but use technology to develop education.

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江苏师范大学21级小学教育专业孔友芹同学向康老师请教了一个问题。海德格尔主张通过形式指引从而将人们指引回自身实际生活的场景中,引导个体回到自己本身存在的地方。但是当我们出了“洞穴”后,经历了社会上的种种,还能真正回到本真的自己吗?

Kong Youqin’s question:when we come out of the cave, after all the social experience, can we really return to our true selves?

康老师解答了孔同学的问题。社会上的经历会告诉我们社会是如何影响我们的,向我们展示了我们在过去的生活中是怎么做的,它向我们展示了我们是如何相互影响的,但这种影响不会使我们迷失本真。

Karl Kraatz answer:Social experience tells us how society affects us, it shows us how we did in our past lives, it shows us how we influence each other, but it doesn't make us lose who we are.

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        江苏师范大学21级小学教育专业凌琪同学向康老师请教了一个问题。如果学生抵制教师的指导,那么,这种情况下,教师应该如何做呢?

Ling Qi’s question:If students resist teachers' guidance, What should teachers do? in this situation?

康老师解答了凌同学的问题。如果学生们不想改变任何事情,不想按照老师说的去做,这当然是一种失望。老师要试着引导学生去解决一些问题以及他们如何看待这些模式,学生必须挑战自己的信仰体系。

Karl Kraatz answer:As the teacher tries to guide the students to solve some problems and how they perceive these patterns, the students must challenge their own belief systems.

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江苏师范大学21级小学教育专业陈明月同学向康老师请教了一个问题。在现在的教育模式下,很多人的思维方式都是固定的,那么如何才能实现真正的教育呢?

Chen Mingyue’s question:Under the current education model, many people's way of thinking is fixed, so how to achieve real education?

康老师对陈同学的问题给予了解答。康老师认为现在的教育是非常固定的,它有非常强大的背景。无法改变整个教育系统。但是可以鼓励学生多思考,尝试着去改变。

Karl Kraatz answer:We can’t use Heidegger's authentic education as a model to change the entire education system. But we can encourage students to think more and try to change.

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        江苏师范大学21级小学教育专业杨丹同学向康老师表达了自己的疑惑。在日常生活中,我们都渴望自由,如何平衡现实的不自由、并坚定自由是在不断被接近的呢?

Yang Dan’s question:In our daily lives, we all yearn for freedom. How do we balance steadfastness with freedom?

康老师回应首先要明白自由的意义是什么,只有极少数人真正向往自由。对于坚定和自由,康老师认为不需要平衡二者,因为这是一个整体,它们都包含责任、适应力、清晰和透明,这是对自由的哲学理解。

Dr. Kraatz replied that we should first understand the meaning of freedom. Kraatz believed that only a few people yearn for freedom. For steadiness and freedom, Kraatz argues that there is no need to balance them .

据悉7月13日上午的参会人员近240人,其中江苏师范大学华体会电竞的研究生165名,本科生12名,参与听会的教师20名,来自其他院系的学生3名,还包括来自国外内其他高校的参会师生35名。江苏师范大学、南京师范大学等研究生及来自印度尼西亚地区的江苏师范大学国际生作了精彩的发言。该场报告在师生们的热烈讨论中结束,取得了圆满成功。

It is reported that there will be about 240 participants in the morning of July 13th, including 165 graduate students from school of Education Science of Jiangsu Normal University, 12 undergraduates, 3 students from other departments, and about 20 teachers of our school, including 35 teachers and students from other colleges and universities abroad. Graduate students from Jiangsu Normal University and Nanjing Normal University and students from Indonesia also made wonderful speeches. The report ended in a heated discussion among teachers and students and was successful.


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